field of speech difficulties, augmentative communication is a form of
communication different from speech in the person (who has speech
In order to
be able to refer to an augmentative communication it is necessary that it
fulfills a function of support or aid to promote the future development of
speech and to guarantee a form of alternative communication in the assumption
that the person does not acquire it.
reasoning is a method of artificial intelligence that represents what people
know in the form of stories.
education is the term used to describe a set of educational interventions aimed
at compensating and/or balancing or reducing possible inequalities among
students in relation to the expectations of education existing in a society.
education allows for the balance of learning rhythms in the classroom.
Information and communication technologies often provide adequate tools for
Competence in learning difficulties are a set of skills, knowledge and attitudes aset of skills, knowledge and attitudes about special educational needs. This competence may be developed in psychopedagogues and teachers regarding behavior difficulties and psychopedagogical knowledge about the tasks in which difficulties arise.
Competition in learning difficulties means what it is to be an expert, how to become an expert and how you can help a person to increase his or her competence.
of learning analyzes and responds to the question of how organisms learn by
association. Learning by association is the simplest learning mechanism with
which all organisms, including people, count upon.
learning by conditioning can occur in two different ways:
Associate a stimulus that previously has no meaning with another stimulus that
is important to the person. This type of learning is called classical
Associate new responses to the stimuli and being able to determine the
relationships between them. This type of learning is called instrumental
thinking is analytic thinking, initially identified in early children who learn
much earlier than other children in both motor and/or language development
(they learn to walk and speak correctly at very early ages).In school, they
learn quickly, including literacy, with little help from adults.
concept has recently been used as the basis of training to enhance creativity
and problem solving.
teaching refers to each of the themes or teachings that constitute a key aspect
of the educational intentions that are collected in the curricula of the
infantile, primary and secondary education. They refer to certain social needs
considered of great importance at the moment and, therefore, they demand a
priority attention on the part of schools.
teaching of these subjects we want to develop in the students an ethical-moral
dimension and an integral formation, fundamentally through an education in
values. Cross-cutting themes are present throughout the educational process and
are not parallel programs to the rest of the curriculum. There is no closed
catalog of topics and, by definition, they are open to incorporate new
of learning activities are the theoretical methods and approaches in which the
learning activities are arranged and organized to enable the attainment of the
of learning activities is framed within the discipline of instructional design.
When such activities are mediated by information and communication
technologies, then the discipline of reference is techno-pedagogical design.
context of special education, the difficulty of learning is a situation that
can be experienced permanently or transiently in any student, at any time, at
any stage of education and with respect to any content object of learning. It
implies that the student is facing a situation that he does not know how to
difficulty of learning is not only limited to difficulties in the most basic
and instrumental areas nor to the case of students with any intellectual,
sensory or motor deficits.
learning is an alternative to the associative approach to explain concept
learning. This type of learning consists of an unmaintained process that
implies that the person learns by constructing and testing hypotheses until he
finds one that works.
discontinuous approach is a type of restructuring that involves an abrupt
change: you do not have to accumulate successes and errors gradually until you
get enough distinctive gradients, but with an error you can change and learn.
The essential idea is that people test hypotheses about the problem they have
to solve, paying attention once to one aspect of the situation and again to a
different aspect and then testing it until they find the solution.
thinking is a type of holistic, global cognition of people who show
exceptionally high performance in tasks, for example, of artistic type
activities such as music, painting, ballet, or gymnastics. Usually they are
very creative activities, outside of ordinary activities.
of thinking is currently the basis for developing a proposal for creativity and
In a broad
sense, education is a set of social practices by which human groups promote the
personal development and socialization of their members, especially the younger
and newly incorporated.
and socializing function of education is guaranteed in most human groups by
involving people-or offering them the possibility-in a wide range of
educational practices and activities, and with this participation it is
intended that people acquire "Knowledge" of all kinds - knowledge,
skills, symbolic systems, traditions, attitudes, individual and collective
values, norms of all kinds - considered basic and fundamental by the social
group of reference.
educational sciences are the leadership at the development of conceptual and
theoretical frameworks to explain e-learning and its ability to contribute to
the construction of knowledge in students.
the teaching-learning process mediated by information and communication
technologies theoretical frameworks have been developed that complement each
other: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Other complementary
theoretical frameworks are the connectivism proposed by Professor George
Siemens and the autonomous learning that has come from the hand of Professor
This type of learning is linked to the emotional experience of other people. In this learning the so-called emotion inducers that have the functionality of learning models participate. Through an observational learning experience, observers learn.
Thus, observers can learn by giving emotional responses such as joy, surprise, fear, etc. In general, this learning is associated with the search for satisfaction associated with the educational process and avoidance of boredom. The characteristics of the person acting as a model are related to the fixation of vicarious emotional learning.
feminization of teaching is the name given to a progressive increase in the
proportion of female teachers, especially in the first levels of education.
countries where the presence of the feminine gender was less than the masculine
one in the professions linked to education the tendency is changing.
to Jean Piaget (1969) formal thought is the ability to think systematically
about the logical relationships present in a problem, regardless of the
with formal reasoning is able to evaluate individual propositions according to
reality but also confers to his reasoning the quality of establishing logical
relationships between propositions.
of learning is predicated on the idea of providing learning that builds a
knowledge construction for students that can be used in more varied contexts
and diverse situations to those that were given when they elaborated it
meaningful a learning the more functional potentiality it has, with more
potential to establish relevant relationships with other knowledge and more
possibilities that it can be applied properly and expertly. This type of
learning is highly valued since it means that the learner is able to apply new
knowledge to different contexts in an adjusted way. It is one of the types of
learning that carry more difficulty.
generalization gradient is the curve that can be drawn by quantifying the
responses that people give to a stimulus and to similar stimuli. In the first
experiments it was observed that the rate of responses gradually decreased as
the presented stimulus moved away from the original. But, you have to keep in
mind that you can find different kinds of gradients.
A very steep
generalization gradient indicates that when the stimulus changes slightly, the
response diminishes significantly. A flat generalization gradient indicates
that, even if the stimulus changes, the response is maintained. Finally, a
straight generalization gradient indicates that as the stimulus changes the
response also changes. That is, the more inclination of the generalization
gradient, the less generalization is manifested.
According the social cognitive theory of the psychologist Albert Bandura (1989), imitation
learning refers to the reproduction by one person of the behavior of another,
in a short period of time, after the observation of such behavior.
important to differentiate between imitation learning and observational
learning since they are similar. In observational learning, the reproduction of
the behavior of the model is not always given, since there can be learning
without execution of the behavior. Also, in observational learning, more
attention is paid to the cognitive processes of the observer involved in
learning than to the precision with which the model's behavior is reproduced.
learning arises without any type of observable manifestation in the person. Latent
learning presents limitations to make it evident since if the change in the
student is not observable, then concluding that there has been learning is
teacher considers that there is latent learning it is important to make it
evident through some activity. The open questions allow the elaboration of the
speech and therefore show the product of this learning.
it is a process of psychological change, relatively permanent and reversible,
which occurs due to experience. Learning refers to the changes that occur in
people as a result of physical and social experience. Therefore, it is a
concept linked to the result of relationships that people establish with other
people, with objects, with situations or with phenomena with which they
interact or to which they are exposed
for learning to take place, there must be a change in some of the areas of
activity or behavior, as cognitive, linguistic, emotional, relational or social
dimensions. It is also necessary that this change is related to a specific
experience or experiences and that, in addition, the change detected shows a
certain permanence over time.
It is a
learning process that derives from coexistence in social environments, so that
people learn to follow patterns, customs and norms of regular coexistence in
the family, educational institutions, with friends, at work or on the street.
of learning is well suited for dealing with content related to the
understanding of the parameters of other cultures. Intercultural sensitivity
can be worked from this type of learning.
learning is evident in different organisms. In this type of learning the person
acquires new behaviors and abilities, or at least a first approximation of
these, by simply observing what other individuals do, without the strict
necessity that is executed by the individual who learns and without the
necessity that it receives reinforcement.
It is often
distinguished, on the one hand, as learning by direct experience or, on the
other hand, learning by imitation and identification: learning through the
observation of a model; that is, through the perception of how another subject
is confronted with a situation and the consequences of their actions.
learning community is a group of people with different levels of experience,
knowledge and skills, who learn through their involvement and participation in
authentic and culturally relevant activities, thanks to the collaboration
established between them
involve interest in a field so that the construction of collective knowledge
and the various types of help that are mutually dispensed are challenging. The
learning community where members use computer networks to communicate and
exchange information is called the online learning community.
of learning occurs when the learner interacts directly with the environment, so
that he or she acquires new answers to certain systematic changes inthe
environment, in the case of classical conditioning; or causes certain changes
in the environment that, in turn, affect their future behavior, in that of
from direct experience is often contrasted with learning by observation. Both
types of learning are relevant for students to have a complete experience.
potential for learning is considered the degree to which a person can learn,
and can even improve his intelligence if he is provided with the right help.
potential is evaluated according to the number and type of aid the person has
to receive in order to learn how to do a job.
scope of the psychology of learning, a set of interventions of the researcher
aimed at highlighting the learning processes.
strategy is a conscious and intentional decision-making process, which consists
in selecting the declarative, procedural and attitudinal knowledge necessary to
achieve a certain objective, always according to the conditions of the
educational situation in which the action takes place.
strategies are linked to teaching so that the teacher can teach to enhance the
use of such strategies.
prescriptions established by the Central Administration and mandatory
implementation by all the autonomous communities.
progress of e-learning in recent years is a fact. The values of this growth
oscillate between 7.6% and 9.5%. This increase has led to an increasing
interest in the discipline that has as an object of study the management of
reports provide data regarding the increase in the number of students enrolling
in at least one online course. Tuition fees have increased at rates well above
those of general higher education. However, in some countries such as the
United States of America, this data follows a pattern that shows decreasing
growth rates in the last year. Students who enrolled in at least one course
constituted 3.7%, lower than online growth rates in previous years.
of teaching are curricular elements that, by their symbolic systems and
strategies of use, encourage the development of cognitive abilities in people.
of teaching in a given context facilitate and stimulate mediated intervention
on reality, the acquisition and understanding of information by the student and
the creation of differentiated environments that promote learning.
is a training methodology that consists of reaching the learning objectives
based on the presentation of very brief contents.
linked to initial and ongoing teacher training through video recording of
teaching situations that are then analyzed and discussed.
can be approached in different ways according to the teachers' priorities and
the characteristics of the context. Even so, we can identify different class
patterns that can be studied according to the most relevant variables in
didactics of the sciences: conceptions about science, about learning or about
the role of the teacher.
modeling of teaching is this identification of patterns and models about
science, learning and the work of the teacher.
learning is a phenomenon that was formulated and described by Gibson and Walk
(1956). This learning consists in the fact that prior experience with complex
stimuli facilitates subsequent discrimination. That is, if a person observes
different types of complex stimuli, when theyface similar stimuli they are more
able to identify them.
learning can occur without any reinforcement, that is, without any consequence
to the behavior of the person. The result of which is to have the ability to
distinguish between stimuli or between components of a compound stimulus or
between the shots of the same stimulus.
thinking is a stage of adult thinking characterized by relativistic and
dialectical forms of cognition, the emergence of which is linked to the context
of development of people.
predisposition to learning is a phenomenon baptized by Harlow (1949). This term
identifies the enhancer effect that some learning can exert on later learning,
so that it can be said that they predispose individuals to new learning.
of learning predisposition is observed when groups of animals are trained to
give a discriminative response along with the presence of a blow. Once the
learning has been established and the animals respond correctly during several
tests it is possible to present new discriminations so that they are
increasingly resolved more easily.
the mechanisms responsible for a transformation made by a living being, organ or
apparatus and the systematic execution of a defined sequence of operations. (It
should be noted that the use of the term process or processes is very
In a way,
this concept has been used as an equivalent by others as mental operations or
mental functions; in these cases, it refers to what the mind does to operate on
the information of the environment and on the mental representations of this
information. At other times it is used as a synonym for procedure.
of teaching is a complex concept encompassing a diversity of facets. There is
no univocal definition widely accepted, but it is used in the generic sense of
purpose pursued by all educational systems. It can refer to the quality of the
system as a whole, compared to the same system in the past or with the systems
of other nations, in terms of the level of schooling or success of students in
specific areas or at the end of specific stages.
it can refer to the performance of the different units within an educational
system in terms of degree of success in the application of certain action
plans, the degree of acceptance or functionality of the curriculum, and the
quality of performance of each teacher or Schools as educational communities.
case, and at any of the levels of analysis, the quality assessment has to take
into account the requirements that derive from the principle of attention to
diversity. Quality and equity do not have to be considered exclusive criteria,
but interdependent principles.
reflection is a process of building knowledge that occurs thanks to the fact
that people have a functional language with which they can learn by reflecting
on the factors that impact on the skills of others and themselves.
people are able to use the principles that govern our activity to find the best
way to develop it. The interpretation of the causes that explain success or
failure to achieve the goal can help modify future performance so as to be more
of the teaching-learning process is a set of actions carried out by the teacher
to adjust, throughout the teaching-learning process, the pedagogical aids to
the needs of the students, through the constant decision facilitated by the
analysis and interpretation of the information collected in the constructive
Cognitive processing is characterized by the fact that the elements are integrated in a sequential order, in which each element is related to the one that precedes it. The relationship between the elements is of a linear type and each element, integrated in a series, can only evoke other elements that follow it, in a sequential way, (this implies analytical, successive or serial abilities). Sequential or successive processing is associated with the frontal and temporal areas of the brain.
learning involves the incorporation of new knowledge by the mental structures
of the person from the establishment of relationships alongside previous
knowledge that has meaning. This way of proceeding involves the elaboration of
complex relationships and the use of comprehensive memory.
learning involves a construction of knowledge that the student makes, relating
the new information in a non-arbitrary way with his/her initial knowledge and
completing, expanding, diversifying and reorganizing the student's initial
strategic use of a learning procedure is linked to the implementation of a
learning procedure in a contextualized and meaningful way; that is, according
to defined objectives and specific situational conditions.
learn is presented as a competence to be developed. This competence means that
the teacher guides the students in the strategic use of knowledge. The
strategic use of knowledge also involves a strategic use of learning
procedures, integrated with the curricular contents, and reflection on their
strategic learning procedures allow learners to orient their decision making to
face a task of learning. There is a great variety of procedures being common
verbalization of the teacher's thought process.
a set of knowledge, principles, theories and methods that are indicated,
displayed or shown to a person or group of people with the purpose of offering
support and helps facilitate the construction of knowledge, the acquisition of
skills and the development of skills.
necessary that there is an instructive or collaborative process in teaching so
that learning is truly effective. For this reason, the term education related
to learning is usually used in education sciences.
actions of the teacher that try to favor the learning of the student.
teaching strategy is a general procedure of teaching that involves the
organization of several specific steps for the purpose of achieving an
pedagogical actions that are developed in the classroom or outside of it for
each discipline or subject. The activities are adjusted to the characteristics
and needs of the students that make up the class. The most immediate reference
for this development is to that of the planning of the teaching-learning
and communication technologies have led the development of teaching-learning
activities to move outside the classroom. For example, the inverted classroom
implies that a part of the teaching-learning process is developed online, with
some element of control over time, place, path or learning pace and another
part of the process unfolds far from the school center.
resources are tools that mediate in the process of communication between
teachers and students, being important to the development of higher education
there are two types of technological resources: LMS platforms, also known as
learning management systems, distributed learning systems, learning platforms,
portals or in English Learning Management Systems (LMS); and open access
resources which are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the
public domain and can be used through an intellectual property license that
allows them to be reused or adapted.
Digital resources that does not exist physically but has a real existence in that it makes it possible for teachers and students to meet, communicate, exchange information and do activities together.
The virtual environments of teaching
and learning are electronic spaces created through the networking of computers
in which educational activities and instructions are made. Given their nature
and characteristics, it would be more appropriate to call them online teaching
and learning environments.
The zone of
proximal development is a central concept at Vygotsky's approach, which is
defined as "the distance between the current level of development,
determined by the independent resolution of problems, and the level of
potential development, determined by means of the resolution of problems under
the guidance of an adult or in collaboration with more able peers
"(Vigotsky, 1978, p.59).
concept is linked to the child's learning potential consisting in the distance
between the student's effective level of development (what he is able to do on
his own) and the level of potential development (what he would be able to do
with the help of an adult or a more capable partner).