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  • Augmentative communication

    In the field of speech difficulties, augmentative communication is a form of communication different from speech in the person (who has speech difficulties).

    In order to be able to refer to an augmentative communication it is necessary that it fulfills a function of support or aid to promote the future development of speech and to guarantee a form of alternative communication in the assumption that the person does not acquire it.


  • Case-Based Reasoning

    Case-based reasoning is a method of artificial intelligence that represents what people know in the form of stories.

  • Compensatory Education

    Compensatory education is the term used to describe a set of educational interventions aimed at compensating and/or balancing or reducing possible inequalities among students in relation to the expectations of education existing in a society.

    Compensatory education allows for the balance of learning rhythms in the classroom. Information and communication technologies often provide adequate tools for compensatory education.

  • Competence in learning difficulties

    Competence in learning difficulties are a set of skills, knowledge and attitudes aset of skills, knowledge and attitudes about special educational needs. This competence may be developed in psychopedagogues and teachers regarding behavior difficulties and psychopedagogical knowledge about the tasks in which difficulties arise.

    Competition in learning difficulties means what it is to be an expert, how to become an expert and how you can help a person to increase his or her competence.

  • Conditioning training

    This type of learning analyzes and responds to the question of how organisms learn by association. Learning by association is the simplest learning mechanism with which all organisms, including people, count upon.

    In general, learning by conditioning can occur in two different ways:

    1. Associate a stimulus that previously has no meaning with another stimulus that is important to the person. This type of learning is called classical conditioning.

    2. Associate new responses to the stimuli and being able to determine the relationships between them. This type of learning is called instrumental conditioning.

  • Convergent thinking

    Convergent thinking is analytic thinking, initially identified in early children who learn much earlier than other children in both motor and/or language development (they learn to walk and speak correctly at very early ages).In school, they learn quickly, including literacy, with little help from adults.

    This concept has recently been used as the basis of training to enhance creativity and problem solving.

  • Cross-sectional teaching

    Cross-curricular teaching refers to each of the themes or teachings that constitute a key aspect of the educational intentions that are collected in the curricula of the infantile, primary and secondary education. They refer to certain social needs considered of great importance at the moment and, therefore, they demand a priority attention on the part of schools.

    With the teaching of these subjects we want to develop in the students an ethical-moral dimension and an integral formation, fundamentally through an education in values. Cross-cutting themes are present throughout the educational process and are not parallel programs to the rest of the curriculum. There is no closed catalog of topics and, by definition, they are open to incorporate new teachings.


  • Design of learning activities

    The design of learning activities are the theoretical methods and approaches in which the learning activities are arranged and organized to enable the attainment of the learning objectives.

    The design of learning activities is framed within the discipline of instructional design. When such activities are mediated by information and communication technologies, then the discipline of reference is techno-pedagogical design.

  • Difficulty of learning

    In the context of special education, the difficulty of learning is a situation that can be experienced permanently or transiently in any student, at any time, at any stage of education and with respect to any content object of learning. It implies that the student is facing a situation that he does not know how to solve.

    The difficulty of learning is not only limited to difficulties in the most basic and instrumental areas nor to the case of students with any intellectual, sensory or motor deficits.

  • Discontinuous learning

    Discontinuous learning is an alternative to the associative approach to explain concept learning. This type of learning consists of an unmaintained process that implies that the person learns by constructing and testing hypotheses until he finds one that works.

    The discontinuous approach is a type of restructuring that involves an abrupt change: you do not have to accumulate successes and errors gradually until you get enough distinctive gradients, but with an error you can change and learn. The essential idea is that people test hypotheses about the problem they have to solve, paying attention once to one aspect of the situation and again to a different aspect and then testing it until they find the solution.

  • Divergent thinking

    Divergent thinking is a type of holistic, global cognition of people who show exceptionally high performance in tasks, for example, of artistic type activities such as music, painting, ballet, or gymnastics. Usually they are very creative activities, outside of ordinary activities.

    This type of thinking is currently the basis for developing a proposal for creativity and problem solving.


  • Education

    In a broad sense, education is a set of social practices by which human groups promote the personal development and socialization of their members, especially the younger and newly incorporated.

    The social and socializing function of education is guaranteed in most human groups by involving people-or offering them the possibility-in a wide range of educational practices and activities, and with this participation it is intended that people acquire "Knowledge" of all kinds - knowledge, skills, symbolic systems, traditions, attitudes, individual and collective values, norms of all kinds - considered basic and fundamental by the social group of reference.

  • Educational Trends

    The educational sciences are the leadership at the development of conceptual and theoretical frameworks to explain e-learning and its ability to contribute to the construction of knowledge in students.

    To analyze the teaching-learning process mediated by information and communication technologies theoretical frameworks have been developed that complement each other: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Other complementary theoretical frameworks are the connectivism proposed by Professor George Siemens and the autonomous learning that has come from the hand of Professor SugatraMitra.

  • Emotional Learning

    This type of learning is linked to the emotional experience of other people. In this learning the so-called emotion inducers that have the functionality of learning models participate. Through an observational learning experience, observers learn.

    Thus, observers can learn by giving emotional responses such as joy, surprise, fear, etc. In general, this learning is associated with the search for satisfaction associated with the educational process and avoidance of boredom. The characteristics of the person acting as a model are related to the fixation of vicarious emotional learning.


  • Feminization of teaching

    The feminization of teaching is the name given to a progressive increase in the proportion of female teachers, especially in the first levels of education.

    In some countries where the presence of the feminine gender was less than the masculine one in the professions linked to education the tendency is changing.

  • Formal thinking

    According to Jean Piaget (1969) formal thought is the ability to think systematically about the logical relationships present in a problem, regardless of the content.

    The person with formal reasoning is able to evaluate individual propositions according to reality but also confers to his reasoning the quality of establishing logical relationships between propositions.

  • Functional learning

    This type of learning is predicated on the idea of providing learning that builds a knowledge construction for students that can be used in more varied contexts and diverse situations to those that were given when they elaborated it initially.

    The more meaningful a learning the more functional potentiality it has, with more potential to establish relevant relationships with other knowledge and more possibilities that it can be applied properly and expertly. This type of learning is highly valued since it means that the learner is able to apply new knowledge to different contexts in an adjusted way. It is one of the types of learning that carry more difficulty.


  • Generalization Gradient

    The generalization gradient is the  curve that can be drawn by quantifying the responses that people give to a stimulus and to similar stimuli. In the first experiments it was observed that the rate of responses gradually decreased as the presented stimulus moved away from the original. But, you have to keep in mind that you can find different kinds of gradients.

    A very steep generalization gradient indicates that when the stimulus changes slightly, the response diminishes significantly. A flat generalization gradient indicates that, even if the stimulus changes, the response is maintained. Finally, a straight generalization gradient indicates that as the stimulus changes the response also changes. That is, the more inclination of the generalization gradient, the less generalization is manifested.


  • Imitation learning

    According the social cognitive theory of the psychologist Albert Bandura (1989), imitation learning refers to the reproduction by one person of the behavior of another, in a short period of time, after the observation of such behavior.

    It is important to differentiate between imitation learning and observational learning since they are similar. In observational learning, the reproduction of the behavior of the model is not always given, since there can be learning without execution of the behavior. Also, in observational learning, more attention is paid to the cognitive processes of the observer involved in learning than to the precision with which the model's behavior is reproduced.


  • Latent learning

    This learning arises without any type of observable manifestation in the person. Latent learning presents limitations to make it evident since if the change in the student is not observable, then concluding that there has been learning is doubtful.

    When the teacher considers that there is latent learning it is important to make it evident through some activity. The open questions allow the elaboration of the speech and therefore show the product of this learning.

  • Learning

    Generically it is a process of psychological change, relatively permanent and reversible, which occurs due to experience. Learning refers to the changes that occur in people as a result of physical and social experience. Therefore, it is a concept linked to the result of relationships that people establish with other people, with objects, with situations or with phenomena with which they interact or to which they are exposed

    In order for learning to take place, there must be a change in some of the areas of activity or behavior, as cognitive, linguistic, emotional, relational or social dimensions. It is also necessary that this change is related to a specific experience or experiences and that, in addition, the change detected shows a certain permanence over time.

  • Learning by living together

    It is a learning process that derives from coexistence in social environments, so that people learn to follow patterns, customs and norms of regular coexistence in the family, educational institutions, with friends, at work or on the street.

    This type of learning is well suited for dealing with content related to the understanding of the parameters of other cultures. Intercultural sensitivity can be worked from this type of learning.

  • Learning by observation

    Observational learning is evident in different organisms. In this type of learning the person acquires new behaviors and abilities, or at least a first approximation of these, by simply observing what other individuals do, without the strict necessity that is executed by the individual who learns and without the necessity that it receives reinforcement.

    It is often distinguished, on the one hand, as learning by direct experience or, on the other hand, learning by imitation and identification: learning through the observation of a model; that is, through the perception of how another subject is confronted with a situation and the consequences of their actions.

  • Learning community

    The learning community is a group of people with different levels of experience, knowledge and skills, who learn through their involvement and participation in authentic and culturally relevant activities, thanks to the collaboration established between them

    Members involve interest in a field so that the construction of collective knowledge and the various types of help that are mutually dispensed are challenging. The learning community where members use computer networks to communicate and exchange information is called the online learning community.

  • Learning from direct experience

    This type of learning occurs when the learner interacts directly with the environment, so that he or she acquires new answers to certain systematic changes inthe environment, in the case of classical conditioning; or causes certain changes in the environment that, in turn, affect their future behavior, in that of instrumental conditioning.

    Learning from direct experience is often contrasted with learning by observation. Both types of learning are relevant for students to have a complete experience.

  • Learning Potential

    The potential for learning is considered the degree to which a person can learn, and can even improve his intelligence if he is provided with the right help.

    Learning potential is evaluated according to the number and type of aid the person has to receive in order to learn how to do a job.

  • Learning procedure

    Within the scope of the psychology of learning, a set of interventions of the researcher aimed at highlighting the learning processes.

  • Learning strategy

    A learning strategy is a conscious and intentional decision-making process, which consists in selecting the declarative, procedural and attitudinal knowledge necessary to achieve a certain objective, always according to the conditions of the educational situation in which the action takes place.

    Learning strategies are linked to teaching so that the teacher can teach to enhance the use of such strategies.

  • Lessons Learned

    Curricular prescriptions established by the Central Administration and mandatory implementation by all the autonomous communities.


  • Management of higher education institutions online

    The rapid progress of e-learning in recent years is a fact. The values of this growth oscillate between 7.6% and 9.5%. This increase has led to an increasing interest in the discipline that has as an object of study the management of educational institutions.

    Several reports provide data regarding the increase in the number of students enrolling in at least one online course. Tuition fees have increased at rates well above those of general higher education. However, in some countries such as the United States of America, this data follows a pattern that shows decreasing growth rates in the last year. Students who enrolled in at least one course constituted 3.7%, lower than online growth rates in previous years.

  • Means of instruction

    The means of teaching are curricular elements that, by their symbolic systems and strategies of use, encourage the development of cognitive abilities in people.

    The means of teaching in a given context facilitate and stimulate mediated intervention on reality, the acquisition and understanding of information by the student and the creation of differentiated environments that promote learning.

  • Micro-education

    Micro-teaching is a training methodology that consists of reaching the learning objectives based on the presentation of very brief contents.

    It is linked to initial and ongoing teacher training through video recording of teaching situations that are then analyzed and discussed.

  • Modeling of teaching

    Teaching can be approached in different ways according to the teachers' priorities and the characteristics of the context. Even so, we can identify different class patterns that can be studied according to the most relevant variables in didactics of the sciences: conceptions about science, about learning or about the role of the teacher.

    The modeling of teaching is this identification of patterns and models about science, learning and the work of the teacher.


  • Perceptual learning

    Perceptual learning is a phenomenon that was formulated and described by Gibson and Walk (1956). This learning consists in the fact that prior experience with complex stimuli facilitates subsequent discrimination. That is, if a person observes different types of complex stimuli, when theyface similar stimuli they are more able to identify them.

    Perceptual learning can occur without any reinforcement, that is, without any consequence to the behavior of the person. The result of which is to have the ability to distinguish between stimuli or between components of a compound stimulus or between the shots of the same stimulus.

  • Postformal thinking

    Postformal thinking is a stage of adult thinking characterized by relativistic and dialectical forms of cognition, the emergence of which is linked to the context of development of people.

  • Predisposition of learning

    The predisposition to learning is a phenomenon baptized by Harlow (1949). This term identifies the enhancer effect that some learning can exert on later learning, so that it can be said that they predispose individuals to new learning.

    An example of learning predisposition is observed when groups of animals are trained to give a discriminative response along with the presence of a blow. Once the learning has been established and the animals respond correctly during several tests it is possible to present new discriminations so that they are increasingly resolved more easily.

  • Prosecution

    Acting of the mechanisms responsible for a transformation made by a living being, organ or apparatus and the systematic execution of a defined sequence of operations. (It should be noted that the use of the term process or processes is very ambiguous.)

    In a way, this concept has been used as an equivalent by others as mental operations or mental functions; in these cases, it refers to what the mind does to operate on the information of the environment and on the mental representations of this information. At other times it is used as a synonym for procedure.


  • Quality of teaching

    The quality of teaching is a complex concept encompassing a diversity of facets. There is no univocal definition widely accepted, but it is used in the generic sense of purpose pursued by all educational systems. It can refer to the quality of the system as a whole, compared to the same system in the past or with the systems of other nations, in terms of the level of schooling or success of students in specific areas or at the end of specific stages.

    Alternatively, it can refer to the performance of the different units within an educational system in terms of degree of success in the application of certain action plans, the degree of acceptance or functionality of the curriculum, and the quality of performance of each teacher or Schools as educational communities.

    In any case, and at any of the levels of analysis, the quality assessment has to take into account the requirements that derive from the principle of attention to diversity. Quality and equity do not have to be considered exclusive criteria, but interdependent principles.


  • Reflection learning

    Learning by reflection is a process of building knowledge that occurs thanks to the fact that people have a functional language with which they can learn by reflecting on the factors that impact on the skills of others and themselves.

    Sometimes, people are able to use the principles that govern our activity to find the best way to develop it. The interpretation of the causes that explain success or failure to achieve the goal can help modify future performance so as to be more effective.

  • Regulation of the teaching-learning process

    Regulation of the teaching-learning process is a set of actions carried out by the teacher to adjust, throughout the teaching-learning process, the pedagogical aids to the needs of the students, through the constant decision facilitated by the analysis and interpretation of the information collected in the constructive evaluation.


  • Sequential processing

    Cognitive processing is characterized by the fact that the elements are integrated in a sequential order, in which each element is related to the one that precedes it. The relationship between the elements is of a linear type and each element, integrated in a series, can only evoke other elements that follow it, in a sequential way, (this implies analytical, successive or serial abilities). Sequential or successive processing is associated with the frontal and temporal areas of the brain.

  • Significant learning

    This learning involves the incorporation of new knowledge by the mental structures of the person from the establishment of relationships alongside previous knowledge that has meaning. This way of proceeding involves the elaboration of complex relationships and the use of comprehensive memory.

    Meaningful learning involves a construction of knowledge that the student makes, relating the new information in a non-arbitrary way with his/her initial knowledge and completing, expanding, diversifying and reorganizing the student's initial knowledge.

  • Strategic use of a learning procedure

    The strategic use of a learning procedure is linked to the implementation of a learning procedure in a contextualized and meaningful way; that is, according to defined objectives and specific situational conditions.


  • Teach to learn

    Teaching to learn is presented as a competence to be developed. This competence means that the teacher guides the students in the strategic use of knowledge. The strategic use of knowledge also involves a strategic use of learning procedures, integrated with the curricular contents, and reflection on their learning process.

    The strategic learning procedures allow learners to orient their decision making to face a task of learning. There is a great variety of procedures being common verbalization of the teacher's thought process.

  • Teaching

    Teaching is a set of knowledge, principles, theories and methods that are indicated, displayed or shown to a person or group of people with the purpose of offering support and helps facilitate the construction of knowledge, the acquisition of skills and the development of skills.

    It is necessary that there is an instructive or collaborative process in teaching so that learning is truly effective. For this reason, the term education related to learning is usually used in education sciences.

  • Teaching procedure

    Set of actions of the teacher that try to favor the learning of the student.

  • Teaching strategy

    The teaching strategy is a general procedure of teaching that involves the organization of several specific steps for the purpose of achieving an instructional goal.

  • Teaching-learning activity

    Set of pedagogical actions that are developed in the classroom or outside of it for each discipline or subject. The activities are adjusted to the characteristics and needs of the students that make up the class. The most immediate reference for this development is to that of the planning of the teaching-learning processes.

    Information and communication technologies have led the development of teaching-learning activities to move outside the classroom. For example, the inverted classroom implies that a part of the teaching-learning process is developed online, with some element of control over time, place, path or learning pace and another part of the process unfolds far from the school center.

  • Technological resources

    Technological resources are tools that mediate in the process of communication between teachers and students, being important to the development of higher education online.

    In general, there are two types of technological resources: LMS platforms, also known as learning management systems, distributed learning systems, learning platforms, portals or in English Learning Management Systems (LMS); and open access resources which are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain and can be used through an intellectual property license that allows them to be reused or adapted.


  • Virtual teaching-learning environment

    Digital resources that does not exist physically but has a real existence in that it makes it possible for teachers and students to meet, communicate, exchange information and do activities together.

    The virtual environments of teaching and learning are electronic spaces created through the networking of computers in which educational activities and instructions are made. Given their nature and characteristics, it would be more appropriate to call them online teaching and learning environments.


  • Zone of proximal development

    The zone of proximal development is a central concept at Vygotsky's approach, which is defined as "the distance between the current level of development, determined by the independent resolution of problems, and the level of potential development, determined by means of the resolution of problems under the guidance of an adult or in collaboration with more able peers "(Vigotsky, 1978, p.59).

    This concept is linked to the child's learning potential consisting in the distance between the student's effective level of development (what he is able to do on his own) and the level of potential development (what he would be able to do with the help of an adult or a more capable partner).